On 16 January 2002 the US Department of Commerce announced the final dumping and countervailing duties on imports of stainless steel bar from France, Germany, Italy, South Korea and the United Kingdom. The Department found that producers/exporters sold this merchandise below fair value. They also found that imports of stainless steel bar from Italy were unfairly subsidised, with subsidy rates ranging from zero to 13.17%. However, imports from Taiwan were found not to be sold below fair value. The petitions in these proceedings were filed on 28 December 2000, by Carpenter Technology Corp., Crucible Specialty Metals, Electralloy Corp., Empire Specialty Steel Inc., Slater Steels Corp., and the United Steelworkers of America, AFL-CIO/CLC. The product covered by these investigations, stainless steel bar, includes articles of stainless steel in straight lengths that have been either hot-rolled, forged, turned, cold-drawn, cold-rolled or otherwise cold-finished, or ground, having a uniform solid cross section along their whole length in the shape of circles, segments of circles, ovals, rectangles (including squares), triangles, hexagons, octagons, or other convex polygons. Stainless steel bar includes cold-finished stainless steel bars that are turned or ground in straight lengths, whether produced from hot-rolled bar or from straightened and cut rod or wire, and reinforcing bars that have indentations, ribs, grooves, or other deformations produced during the rolling process.